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   2013| January-June  | Volume 18 | Issue 1  
    Online since August 21, 2019

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Households' incidence on Malaria and expenditures to treat Malaria in Sudan: What role does use of different vector control tools play in Rural and Urban locations?
OE Onwujekwe, JC Umeano-Enemuoh, BS C Uzochukwu, EF Malik
January-June 2013, 18(1):26-38
Background: Malaria is the major health problem in Sudan and accounts for more than 40% of health facility visits and 35,000 deaths in Sudan. Although treatable, it affects people from different socio-economic status (SES), causing suffering and poor socio-economic development. Objectives: To explore the relationship between use of different malaria control tools and household expenditure for malaria treatment especially in children under five. Methods: The study was undertaken in 6 localities in Gezira and Khartoum states in Sudan. 720 randomly selected households were interviewed using a pre-tested interviewer - administered questionnaire. Household incidence and expenditure for malaria in different age groups was used to compare the use of different malaria control tools for malaria treatment in rural and urban communities. Results: The highest incidence of malaria elicited from respondents was 29.0% and mean expenditure was 3235.5 Dinars (US$12). It was found that there was high incidence of malaria and large expenditure on treatment on households with insecticide treated-bed net (ITN) and in-door residual house spraying (IRHS). Conclusion: The relationship between expenditure and use of different vector control depends on the geographic location of respondents. People living in the rural areas spend more to have access to malaria control tools. Location of respondent has a positive effect on expenditures and use of malaria control tools. The National Malaria Administration (NMA) and (SMA) State Malaria Administration should continually determine the access that the poorest and high risk households have to IRHS and ITNs. Financial riak protection mechanism are needed to ameliorate the expenditures on malaria control tool, which mostly paid from out of pocket.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Socio-Demographic determinants of antenatal clinic utilization in a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital
FE Okwaraji, UU Aniebue
January-June 2013, 18(1):13-25
Background: The goal of the safe motherhood initiative launched in Kenya in 1987 was to reduce the global maternal mortality rates by 50% by the year 2000, while the fifth millennium development goal (MDG) aims to improve maternal health with a target of reducing maternal mortality rate by 75% between 1990 and 2015. The safe motherhood initiative and similar programmes increased international awareness on the problems of maternal mortality in developing countries. This led to initiation of several interventions addressing different aspects of safe motherhood and maternal mortality including increased access to antenatal care for pregnant women. Objective: This study examined the socio-demographic variables affecting antenatal clinic utilization in a Nigerian university teaching hospital. Method: Two hundred and fifty five parturients waiting to be attended to by doctors at the antenatal clinics of the University of Nigeria teaching hospital Ituku Ozalla between March and April 2013 were selected using the convenient sampling method and surveyed with a pre-tested, semi structured and self administered questionnaire. Results: Proper response rate was 98.6% and the mean age of the respondents was 27.8±8.7 years. Their parities ranged from 0-6 with a mean of 1.4±1.6. It was found that 14.9% of the parturients were 35 years and above of whom 16.2% were primigravidae. Furthermore 69.1% had either a diploma or university degree. Women with higher education increasingly took decisions on reproductive health issues (p<0.05). It was also discovered that poor education and low socioeconomic status were associated with poor utilization of antenatal facilities. Conclusion: Among other social factors female education improved women's ability to take decisions on reproductive matters. Poor education and low socioeconomic status not only increase women's vulnerability to complications of pregnancy but also prevented them from utilizing available obstetric services. In the light of the above it is recommended that the institution of social interventions that mobilize vulnerable groups of parturients for antenatal care is essential for the enhancement of maternal health in developing countries.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Gunshot injuries to the maxillofacial region: Computed tomographic evaluation in a Southern Nigerian Tertiary Hospital
O Ehimwenma, PE Esezobor
January-June 2013, 18(1):2-12
Objective: To evaluate Computed Tomographic findings in patients with gunshot injury (GSI) to the maxillofacial region. Materials And Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients who had Computed Tomography (CT) scanning done for GSI to the maxillofacial region at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), from 2006 to 2013 was undertaken. Serial axial CT slices were taken at 5 and 10mm intervals. Medical Records of the patients with special emphasis on the patient's demographics was sourced from the request forms and CT findings were obtained from CT reports and images. The data was entered into a proforma and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: The mean age of subjects was 35.07 ± 15.67 years and males were by far more commonly affected comprising 92.6%. The left side of the face was predominantly affected and this occurred in 16 (59.3%) patients. Facial fractures occurred in majority of the patients (85.2%) with the frontal bone being mostly affected when fractures were assessed in isolation. The most common intracranial complication was hemorrhage in 29.6%. Other complications included intracranial pellet retention, pneumocephalus and cerebral oedema. Conclusion: CT is a valuable tool in the setting of maxillofacial GSI providing accurate spatial localization of bullet pellets and information regarding complications that may arise from such injuries.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Patient satisfaction with health care services: A case study of the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, North central Nigeria
A Onwujekwe, EI Etiaba, AM Oche
January-June 2013, 18(1):39-53
Background: There are various factors which influence patient satisfaction with healthcare services as documented in the literature but a knowledge gap exists in the study area regarding this. Hence this study tried to determine these factors and how they affect patient satisfaction and to generate policy relevant information that will aid the improvement of healthcare services delivery. Methods: A total of 142 subjects were recruited for the study. Socio-demographic interview schedule was used to assess socio-demographic characteristics of subjects. The client satisfaction questionnaire [CSQ] was used to assess level of patient satisfaction. Results: The study identified waiting time, time spent with doctors during consultation as influencing the level of patient satisfaction with healthcare services. Other factors that influence the level of satisfaction include the nature of patients' illness and patient perception of the hospital environment. Of the two-time based measures, time spent with the doctors during consultation is the most powerful determinant of the overall patient satisfaction. However, combination of long waiting times and short consultation times produced the lowest level of patient satisfaction and suggests that both measures are important. Conclusion: The more information the physician provides to the patient the greater the satisfaction. The more the patient perceives the hospital as being neat the higher the level of satisfaction they derive from the services they receive.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Re-Positioned for better services

January-June 2013, 18(1):1-1
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