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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2023  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 43-49

Evaluation of the incidence of central venous catheter-associated infections in patients admitted in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria


1 Department of Anaesthesia, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria
2 Department of Anaesthesia, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Ituku/Ozalla Campus, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Adaobi O Amucheazi
Department of Anaesthesia, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Ituku/Ozalla Campus, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu State
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmh.IJMH_1_22

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Background: Presence of a central venous catheter (CVC) though useful may lead to CVC-associated bloodstream infections (CVCBSIs), resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the incidence of CVCBSIs, the predominant causative microorganisms, the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the microorganisms, and the associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study evaluated the incidence of CVCBSIs in patients who had the catheter inserted on admission into the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary hospital in South-East, Nigeria. Sixty-eight patients were recruited for the study. Blood samples were collected aseptically from a peripheral vein on admission, 72 h after the insertion of CVC, and at removal of CVC for blood culture. The distal 5 cm of the CVC was also collected at removal for microscopy, culture, and sensitivity testing. Results: Six out of all the patients recruited developed CVCBSIs, giving an incidence rate of 9.2%, whereas 48% (n = 31) developed catheter bacterial colonization. Over one-fifth (22.7%) of the patients with catheter duration beyond 5 days had CVCBSIs. Patients whose CVC duration was beyond 5 days had a higher risk of CVCBSIs (P = 0.015) than others. The commonest microorganism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the most susceptible antibiotic was aminoglycoside (gentamycin). Conclusion: The incidences of CVCBSIs and CVC colonization were 9.2% and 48%, respectively. The duration of catheterization was found to be a major risk factor for CVCBSIs. The most predominant organism isolated was S. aureus. The most sensitive antibiotic agent was the aminoglycoside (gentamycin). It is therefore recommended that catheter care bundle which includes hand hygiene, use of chlorhexidine for skin preparation during insertion, use of barrier precautions during insertion, and the removal of unnecessary central lines should be strictly adhered to. Gentamycin should be used as empirical antibiotics in the ICUs.


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