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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 175-182

Impact of two anti-malaria drugs (artequin and chloroquine) on some hematological parameters in wistar rats

1 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Nigeria
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Parklane-Enugu, Nigeria
3 Department of Physiology, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Princewill Ikechukwu Ugwu
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus,
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmh.IJMH_53_20

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Background: Artequin (AQ) and other Artemisinin-based therapies have replaced chloroquine (CQ) as the preferred treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, due to the resistance of the parasite to CQ. This study was designed to investigate the comparative effects of CQ and AQ on some haematological parameters in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six (36) female Wistar rats were randomly assigned into two batches. Each batch had three groups of six rats each, and they were placed on normal rat chow: AQ (1.6mg/100g bwt) and/or CQ (0.875mg/100g bwt) orally and once daily for three and seven days for batches 1 and 2, respectively. Full blood count was carried out by using an automated blood cell counter. Results: Results showed that the administration of AQ for three days did not significantly alter the levels of red blood cells (RBCs), RBC indices, hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total and differential white blood cells (WBCs), platelet count, and platelet indices. However, CQ increased the RBCs, Hb, PCV, and eosinophils significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the control. CQ also increased the total WBCs significantly (P < 0.05) compared with AQ. Both drugs decreased neutrophil but increased lymphocyte count significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the control after three days of treatment. After seven days of administration, AQ significantly (P < 0.05) reduced RBC count, PCV, Hb, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and neutrophils compared with the control; both drugs reduced platelet count and PCT significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the control after seven days of treatment. Conclusion: The administration of AQ or CQ at their recommended doses and duration is relatively safe. However, administering a combination of Artesunate and mefloquine, and not CQ, beyond normal duration might have negative effects on hematological parameters.

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