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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 70-76

HIV-related oral lesions in patients on HAART: A preliminary study in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Nigeria, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Ezi A Akaji
Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Nigeria, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmh.IJMH_43_19

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Background/Aim: Oral lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections may serve as markers for immune deterioration and disease progression and sometimes be the first indication of the disease. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of HIV-related oral lesions (HIV-ROLs) in people living with the disease in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was used to obtain data from 208 HIV- infected persons accessing treatment from two centers for acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention. Data obtained were demographic details, duration of infection, current cluster of differentiated 4 (CD4) count, and oral complaints. Thereafter, the perioral and oral cavity of the respondents were inspected for HIV-ROLs using disposable items. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, version 17. Results: Eighty-four (40.4%) respondents had HIV-ROLs; 44 had more than one lesion yielding 128 combinations. Forty-four of the 84 lesions (52.4%) were seen in those diagnosed over 5 years ago, 28 (33.3%) in those with 2–5 years duration of infection (P = 0.05), and 27 (32.1%) in persons with CD4 counts <200 cells/mm3. Fifty-three (41.4%) were oral candidiasis and 6 (4.7%) were oral hairy leukoplakia. One hundred and nine (52.4%) respondents had oral complaints/concerns, 53 (48.6%) of whom had at least one lesion on examination (P = 0.01). Conclusion: The pattern of oral lesions observed was consistent with those reported in similar studies, though prevalence varied slightly. Lesions correlated positively with self-reported oral concerns. Coordination of healthcare services between the physicians and dentists is vital in improving the well-being of the patients.

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