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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21-29

Pattern of childhood renal disorders in Umuahia, South East Nigeria

1 Department of Peiatrics, Federal Medical Center, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
2 Department of Pediatrics, Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria
3 Department of Pediatrics, Univeristy of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4314/jcm.v20i1.4

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Background: Renal diseases in childhood are increasingly being reported worldwide with significant mortality in the low-income countries. Knowledge of the pattern and possible etiological factors may assist in the prevention as well as early intervention to reduce the disease burden. This study aims to determine the proportion of pediatric admissions due to renal diseases; ascertain the types, demographic characteristics, common presenting features, possible etiological factors and outcome of renal diseases among children admitted into the Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia. Methods: This was a case series review of children aged 1 month to 18 years managed for various renal conditions during a five year period. Information obtained such as patients' biodata, symptoms, clinical and laboratory findings, diagnosis and outcome of treatment were analyzed. Results: Renal disorders accounted for 2.2% of paediatric admissions. Males accounted for 54.2% with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. The median age was 10 years with a range of 4 months to 16 years. The most common presenting features were proteinuria and oedema of varying degrees. Nephrotic syndrome, urinary tract infection (UTI), acute glomerulonephritis and chronic renal failure were the most common renal disorders. Mortality due to renal disorders was 5.1%. Causes of death were chronic renal failure and acute glomerulonephritis. Conclusion: Chronic renal diseases (Nephrotic syndrome and glomerulonephritis) are the most dominant form of childhood renal disorders in Umuahia. This pattern of disease burden requires the need for early detection and appropriate treatment to help reduce the impact of the diseases among the children in this community.

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